Tuesday, March 11, 2014

पुलिस और उसके डकर्तव्य और जिम्मेवारिया

भारतीय संस्कृति विश्व की एक पुरानी संस्कृति है और उसी के साथ हमारी बहुत सी संस्थाए भी बहुत पुरानी है विश्व को  पहला लोकतन्त्र भी भारत का देंन  है।
            जैसे और सब संस्थाये पुरानी है वैसे ही हमारी पुलिस बल  भी बहुत पुरानी संस्था है जो की बहुत से सामाजिक, राजनैतिक  येवम संस्कृति परिवर्तनों को पास करते हुए यहा तक पाहुची है
            बर्तमान पुलिस सिस्टम है वो प्राचीन काल , मुग़ल काल ये ब्रिटिश कल का एक मिश्रित प्रारूप है।जो की ब्रिटीशो के द्वारा बनाए गए बहुत से नियम कानून का अभी भी पालन करती है। ब्रिटीशो के द्वारा बनाया गया भारतीय पुलिस एक्ट 1861 ही वर्तमान पुलिस सिस्टम का मूल ढांचा है।
भारतीय पुलिस कई तरह के संघठात्मक,कार्यप्रणाली और व्वाहारात्मक विरोधाभाष से ग्रसित है जिसे दूर करने के लिए बहुत सारे कमीशन एवं समिति बनी इन सब को लिस्ट आउट करने के लिए और दूर करने के लिए जिसमे कुछ हद तक सफल भी हुए लेकिन आभी भी बहुत कुछ बाकि है.कुछ विरोधाभाष जिसे इन कमीशन एवं समितियों ने लिस्ट आउट किया यो निम्नलिखित है.

Colonial Stigma: भले ही हमे आजाद हुवे 60 सालो से ज्यादा हो गाये है और हम एक लोकतान्त्रिक देश में रहते है लेकिन जनता अभी भी पुलिस कार्य प्राणाली एवं व्वहार को ब्रिटिश के ज़माने के दमनकारी नीतियों से ही तुलना करती है.

जरुर पढ़े : भारतीय पुलिस क्यों ऐसी है ?

Old and Archaic Rule Books: पुलिस जिन नियम और कानूनी किताबो (IPC, CrPC, Evidence Act, Police Act.) के ऊपर कम करती है सब अंग्रेजो के ज़माने के है  जिसके बहुत सरे नियम तो बहुत पुराने और आउटडेटिड हो गए है.
Poor & inadequate PCR:पुलिस का आम जनता से सम्बन्ध बहुत ज्यादा नहीं रखती  है और जो वो रखती  भी है वह  बहुत  कम और नेगेटिव प्रवृति का है.
Poor image (ख़राब छबि ): पुलिस का इमेज जनता के बिच में बहुत ख़राब है .
Over Centralization: Indian Police is a functionally centralized  organization and no efforts have been done to decentralize the police functions.
Over burdened organization : There is an extra ordinary workload on an average policemen, which has adversely affected his efficiency and  performance
Basic Data
State Police Strength and the Ratio
Functions, Roles and Duties of Police in General:
पुलिस समाज की एक सर्वव्यापी संस्था है इसलिए पुलिस सरकार का सबसे ज्यादा दिखाई एवं जनता के सबसे नजदीक रहनेवाली संगठन है.
इसलिए जब कोई नागरिक अपने आप को किसी भी खतरा , समस्या या कठिनयियो में पता है और उसे कुछ भी समझ में नहीं आता है की क्या करे या क्या करे तो सबसे पहले पुलिस के पास जाता इसलिए समाज में यह महसूस किया जाता है की पुलिस को most accessible, interactive and dynamic organisation होना चाहिए . Their roles, functions and duties in the society are natural to be varied, and multifarious on the one hand; and complicated, knotty and complex on the other.  Broadly speaking the twin roles, which the police are expected to play in a society are maintenance of law and maintenance of order. However, the ramifications of these two duties are numerous, which result in making a large inventory of duties, functions, powers, roles and responsibilities of the police organization.
The role and functions of the police in general are:
(a) To uphold and enforce the law impartially, and to protect life, liberty, property, human rights, and dignity of the members of the public;
(b) To promote and preserve public order;
(c) To protect internal security, to prevent and control terrorist activities, breaches of communal harmony, militant activities and other situations affecting Internal Security;
(d) To protect public properties including roads, railways, bridges, vital installations, and establishments etc. against acts of vandalism, violence or any kind of attack;
(e) to prevent crimes, and reduce the opportunities for the commission of crimes through their own preventive action and measures as well as by aiding and cooperating with other relevant agencies in implementing due measures for prevention of crimes;
(f) To accurately register all complaints brought to them by a complainant or his representative, in person or received by post, e-mail or other means, and take prompt follow-up action thereon, after duly acknowledging the receipt of the complaint;
g) To register and investigate all cognizable offences coming to their notice through such complaints or otherwise, duly supplying a copy of the First Information Report to the complainant, and where appropriate, to apprehend offenders, and extend requisite assistance in the prosecution of offenders;
(h) To create and maintain a feeling of security in the community, and as far as possible prevent conflicts and promote amity;
(i) to provide, as first responders, all possible help to people in situations arising out of natural or man-made disasters, and to provide active assistance to other agencies in relief and rehabilitation measures;
(j) To aid individual, who are in danger of physical harm to their person or
property, and to provide necessary help and afford relief to people in distress situations; (k) to facilitate the orderly movement of people and vehicles, and to control and regulate traffic on roads and highways;
(l) to collect intelligence relating to matters affecting public peace, and all kind of crimes including social offences, communalism, extremism, terrorism and other matters relating to national security, and disseminate the same to all concerned agencies, besides acting, as appropriate on it themselves.
(m) To take charge, as a police officer on duty, of all unclaimed property and take action for their safe custody and disposal in accordance with the procedure prescribed.
(n) To train, motivate and ensure welfare of police personnel
Social Responsibilities of the Police
. Every police officer shall:
(a) behave with the members of the public with due courtesy and decorum,
particularly so in dealing with senior citizens, women, and children;
(b) guide and assist members of the public, particularly senior citizen, women, children, the poor and indigent and the physically or mentally challenged individuals, who are found in a helpless condition on the streets or other public places or otherwise need help and protection;
(c) provide all requisite assistance to victims of crime and of road accidents, and in a particular ensure that they are given prompt medical aid, irrespective of medico-legal formalities, and facilities their compensation and other legal claims;
(d) ensure that in all situations, especially during a conflict between communities, classes, castes and political groups, the conduct of the police is always governed by the principles of impartiality and human rights norms, with special attention to protecting of weaker sections including minorities;
(e) prevent harassment of women and children in public places and public transport, including stalking, making objectionable gestures, signs, remarks or harassment caused in any way;
(f) render all requisite assistance to the members of the public, particularly women, children, and the poor and indigent persons, against criminal exploitation by any person or organized group; and
(g) arrange for legally permissible sustenance and shelter to every person in custody and making known to all such person provisions of legal aid schemes available from the Government and also inform the authorities concerned in this regard.
(h) preserve, promote and protect human rights and interests of weaker sections, backward classes, poor, weak and the downtrodden

जरुर  पढ़े :  आतंकवादियो के बिच अगर फंस गए है तो क्या करे 
The Inventory of Police Duties Functions & Jobs
         In the light of above-mentioned description of police work and functioning, an inventory of police duties, function and jobs can be prepared in the following manner:
1. Investigation related duties and jobs
2. Crime prevention and preservation of peace and security
3. Crime detection work
4. Order maintenance and security jobs
5. Enforcement of Social Legislation, Minor, Major and Special Acts
6. Collection of Intelligence
7. Democratic and election-related duties
8. Natural calamities, disaster management and emergency duties
9. Maintenance of Police Records
10. PRO duties
11. Assistance to other departments
12. Miscellaneous duties and functions
Police rank and rank insignia

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